Titanium is a chemical element in the Periodic Table marked with the atomic number of 22 and with the chemical symbol Ti. This chemical element belongs to period 4 elements and the Transition Metals category. Similar to the rest of the Transition Metal elements Titanium possesses various metallic properties. In the Periodic Table Titanium is preceded by Scandium and is followed by Vanadium.


Titanium is a noteworthy stable, durable and strong chemical element. This Transition Metal’s extremely high resistance towards corrosion in Chlorine, sea water and aqua regia is also highly valued. Titanium can be found in the Earth’s lithosphere, in basins, in the crust, and in almost all living organisms on our planet. It is most abundant in minerals like ilmenite and rutile. Titanium has a large variety of commercial and scientific applications. This chemical element is used mainly for metallurgy, dental medicine, aircraft manufacturing, electronics, and for other types of industrial purposes like cosmetics, jewelry manufacturing, and so on.


Physical Characteristics of Titanium

In terms of physical characteristics Titanium is a fine example of the Transition Metals’ properties. It appears in a solid state as a strong metallic element with a shiny, silvery luster. It has a particularly low density, high strength and resistivity, and is quite ductile. Titanium is valued for its advantageous physical properties, such as its strength, low density, and paramagnetic magnetic ordering. The melting and boiling points of Titanium are relatively high compared to those of other Transition Metal elements – 1941 K and 3560 K in their respective order. It crystalizes in a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure and oxidizes readily when exposed to air.


Chemical Properties of Titanium


Atomic Number – 22

Group – 4

Period – 4

Block – d

Electronic Configuration – 3d2 4s2

Relative Atomic Mass – 47.867 (47.867 g/mol)

Molecular Weight – 47.867

Electronegativity – 1.54

Density (G CM-3) – 4.506 g/cm3 at room temperature; 4.11 g/cm3 in liquid state

Melting Point – 1941 K; 1668 °C; 3034 °F

Boiling Point – 3560 K; 3287 °C; 5949 °F

Atomic Radius – 147 pm

Isotopes – 5

Electronic Shell – 2, 8, 10, 2


Discovery of Titanium

The chemical element Titanium was firstly discovered back in 1791 by a British mineralogist and clergyman, named William Gregor. He found the new element in a sample of ilmenite sand after isolating two oxides from the sample – Iron oxide and an unknown substance, which turned out to be Titanium oxide. Four years later, in 1795, a Prussian chemist, named Martin Heinrich Klaproth, independently discovered the same element. He decided to name it Titanium after the Greek mythological Titans.


Titanium was firstly isolated in 1825 by a Swedish chemist, named Jöns Jacob Berzelius, but the first production of pure Titanium was carried out in 1910.


Recognized by: William Gregor (1791)

Known and discovered by: William Gregor (1791)

Named by: Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1795)


Uses and role of Titanium

Due to the fact that Titanium is quite ductile, relatively low on density and extremely hard and durable it has numerous uses and plays various roles in electronics, metallurgy and other commercial industries.


Titanium plays a key role in various alloys. It is used in the manufacturing of aircrafts and marine crafts. It also finds applications in electronics for the manufacturing of phones and laptops, in the glass and paper industry, and in the manufacturing of various jewelry pieces. Other applications of Titanium are sporting goods, pistols, architectural frames, and cookware. This Transition Metal is also largely used in medicine, particularly in dental medicine and in various surgical instruments and aiding equipment such as crutches and wheelchairs. It also finds application in pigments, paint, additives and coatings.


Titanium on Earth

Titanium is the seventh most abundant metallic element of all Metals on Earth. It is also the ninth most abundant of all chemical elements in the Periodic Table on our planet. Titanium can be found in the Earth’s crust, sea water and various living organisms. This chemical element is particularly abundant in several minerals, including ilmenite, brookite, rutile, titanite and anatase. It is also present in the Sun, in meteorites and in M-type stars.



Due to its resistivity, durability and noteworthy strength Titanium has been the subject of various studies. Some of them have discovered that this chemical element can be used in the manufacturing of long-lasting and efficient containers for the storage of nuclear waste.