Non metals | Group 3 elements

Non metals are a total of 17 chemical elements in the Periodic table. They are elements from groups 1, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18. Non metals are those elements, which lack metallic attributes in terms of physical and chemical properties. These elements don’t have any similar group trends and they don’t bear similar identities in structures and properties, so they don’t belong to one group only, but rather in a category. The 17 elements falling in the Non metals category are as following: Hydrogen (H), Helium (He), Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O), Fluorine (F), Neon (Ne), Phosphorus (P), Sulfur (S), Chlorine (Cl), Argon (Ar), Selenium (Se), Bromine (Br), Krypton (Kr), Iodine (I), Xenon (Xe), and Radon (Rn).


Physical Characteristics of Nonmetals

Most of the Non metals in the Periodic table are gases, like Hydrogen, Helium, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Chlorine, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon. On the other hand, Carbon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Selenium, and Iodine are solids, while Bromine is the only Nonmetal in a liquid state. In terms of physical characteristics the Nonmetal elements are highly volatile, which means that they easily evaporate. They have a distinctively low elasticity and are excellent as heat and electricity insulators. Most Non metals are lustrous or colorless, others have grey, red, yellow or green hues.


Chemical Properties of Nonmetals

Every single one Nonmetal element in the Periodic table has nonmetallic chemical behavior in general. Some nonmetals, like Iodine or Radon, indicate some cationic or incipient metallic behavior. Most of them can form oxides. Nonmetal elements have high electronegativity and high ionization energies. Their reaction to Periodic elements and their chemical compounds results in Nonmetals gaining or sharing electrons.


Bonding and reaction to other elements and compounds

Non metal elements have a standard atomic structure of an 8-N (in which case N is the valence electron number) bond with their nearest neighbors. This means that Nonmetal atoms can complete their valence shells. Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen are an exception to this rule, because their atoms are significantly small, which makes them capable of forming more stable alternative bonds. The volatile Nonmetal elements react strongly to water. On top of it all most Nonmetal elements are extractions from other compounds, like brine solutions, liquid air, minerals, natural gases, and ores.


Non metals in the periodic table.

Uses and applications of Nonmetals

Most Nonmetal elements don’t have a universal purpose. Some of these elements can be used combined with others in everyday household objects, food items or the medicine industry.
For example, Neon, Phosphorus, Xenon and Krypton are used in fluorescent lamps, energy saving lamps, lasers, and other lightning installations. Oxygen, Hydrogen and Helium find application in party balloons, refrigerants, micronutrients, fertilizers. Selenium is used in the glass manufacturing industry, Xeon is used in plasma TVs, Fluorine is used in toothpaste, Chloride is used in bleach and other detergents. Argon finds application in the manufacturing of insulated windows, Carbon is also used for graphite and for pencils. Helium, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chloride, Bromine, Iodine, Xeon and Radon are used in medicine.


Non metals on Earth

Non metal elements in the Periodic table are actually quite common on Earth. Although Non metals are five times less than metal elements, two of the most common Non metals actually take up more than 99{f55234ca3553991fddb3c1407133ac611f8d4d4a914364eb7c0c7952d8e2a5f9} of the visible Universe – and these two elements are Hydrogen and Helium. On the other hand, the third most common Nonmetal element in the Periodic table – Oxygen – takes up nearly ½ of our Earth’s crust, atmosphere and water basins. Many Non metals are also found in living organisms. Apart from existing naturally on our planet, many Non metal elements can actually be derived other elements and compounds as byproducts of their processing. Other than that they are also present in minerals.