Though Atomic table and below modern periodic table defines about elements in rows and columns, The initial form of the Modern periodic table is thought to have been proposed by Dimitri Mendeleev in 1869 and was based on relative atomic masses (Scerri, 2007). However, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry (2016), there are other alchemists like Alexandre-Emile Beguyer de Chancourtois, John Newlands, Julius Lothar Meyer, and Henry Moseley who may have played an important role in shaping how elements are arranged to reflect the similarities between their properties. The modern periodic table proposed by Dmitri Mendeleev was the first to gain scientific credibility but was not the first table that organized elements based on their periodic properties (RSC, 2016).
Note:On below Dynamic Periodic table click on any of the elements or groups to dive in more about them.
Dynamic Periodic Table
Chemistry deals with what we are compose of, it tells us what we are made of or what the things around us are made of and it provides us ideas and knowledge about the different element that the universe contains. Chemistry offers us a guide to easily understand and easy know the different elements that we can be found in the universe, it is the modern periodic table. modern periodic table is a table and hint guide that contains and will contain all the information and kind of the elements that are discovered and elements that are soon to be discovered; Periodic table contains and features the different group of elements and their symbols with their corresponding mass and atomic number, this table can help you know and learn what exact elements that you should combine to create the exact compound element that you need. Periodic table will surely contribute and already contributed so many help for the rapid growth of the modern era. It surely provide sufficient amount of knowledge and countless help for the improvement and development of the world and generation we’re currently living in. The periodic table had guided the humanity enough that the formerly 90-92 natural elements were now added by 26 man-made elements.
The modern periodic table has remained to be the most important reference there is in chemistry; highlighting elements arranged in order of an increasing proton number. This tool is also important in chemistry because it helps chemists understand why elements react as they do (Sharp, 2004). The table arranges all the known elements in an informative array to illustrate the chemical aspects with the related electronic configurations. In fact, the way elements are organized in a periodic table can compare to that of a big grid, with every element placed at a specific location (Sharp, 2004). In a modern periodic table, elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number from left to right (rows), and from top to bottom (columns). Every row and column has very precise characteristics. The order in which the elements are arranged corresponds with the increasing atomic mass (Eric, 2007).
Modern periodic table and arrangements of elements
The Modern periodic table has more than 100 elements arranged in order of increasing atomic number. The chemical elements are arranged in ‘periods’ and ‘groups’ (Richard, 1986). The various rows of elements on the modern periodic table are referred to as periods. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (2016), each element has a period number that indicates the highest level of energy occupied by an electron, especially when in the unexcited state. As one moves down the periodic table, the number of electrons contained in a period increases. The implication of this is that the energy sub-levels in every energy level increase at the same rate as the energy level of the atom.
A group in the modern periodic table refers to those elements in the same column. Elements in a group have equal configurations of their valence electron and chemically behave in a similar manner. Examples of groups of the periodic table include alkali metals (group 1, excluding hydrogen), alkaline-earth metals (Group 2), transition metals (Group 3-12), groups with metalloids (Groups 13-16), halogens (Group 17), and noble gasses (Group 18) (Zolotov, 2007). Elements in these groups share similar chemical properties. For example, all the chemical elements in group 18 (helium (He), Argon (Ar), Neon (Ne), Xenon (Xe), Krypton (Kr), and Radon (Rn)) are all inert gases and have similar characteristics (colorless, odorless, nonflammable under standard conditions, and tasteless) (Zolotov, 2007). Unlike other elements, hydrogen is considered to be an element in a group of its own since it can behave chemically like a metal by losing valence electrons, and as a nonmetal by gaining valence electrons. Though, hydrogen is classified as part of group 1 elements because it has a single electron in its outer electronic shell (Laing, 2007).
The element groups in a modern periodic table are either nonmetals or different subsets of metals. But, there is no separate line between the two types of elements. While metal elements are regarded as both good conductors of heat and electricity, the subsets are based on the same characteristics and chemical properties (Eric, 2007). The traditional version of the periodic table uses the commonly accepted differentiations between the two groups. The differentiation groups elements as either alkali metals, alkaline earth, non-metals, metalloid, post-transition metal, transition metal, halogen, noble gas, lanthanides, or actinides (Richard, 1986).
Important information in a periodic table
The periodic table contains a lot of information that is important for chemists. For example, a scientist could use the atomic mass of carbon to determine the number of carbon atoms in one-kilogram block of carbon. Therefore, important information to note for every element in the periodic table includes the atomic number, element symbol, and atomic weight.
Atomic number in periodic table
Each element in the periodic table is defined by the number of protons in its atom, otherwise referred to as an atomic number. All the atoms of a certain element have the same number of protons (atomic number). For example, all the carbon atoms contain 6 protons, hydrogen atoms contain 1 proton, and oxygen atoms contain 8 protons, while all the sodium atoms contain 11 protons. In the periodic table, the atomic number is usually located on the upper-left corner of that element. The atomic number of an element influences its chemical behavior (Eric, 2007).
Element Symbol in periodic table
The element symbol can found right at the center of each box containing an element, and is usually one, two, or three letters that are chosen to represent the element. For example, hydrogen is represented by “H”, krypton is represented by “Kr”, while Ununpentium is represented by “Uup”. The symbols used in the periodic table to represent the elements are used internationally, and cannot be changed individually for suitability purposes (Eric, 2007).
Atomic Weight in periodic table
Atomic weight is at times referred to as atomic mass. The atomic weight can be found right below the name of the chemical element in the periodic table. The value of the atomic weight of each element represents the average mass of atoms of the element. This value is calculated based on the relative abundance of isotopes in an element occurring naturally. The standard atomic weight of an element is represented in atomic mass units (“amu”) (Eric, 2007). Even though the individual atoms of an element usually have atomic mass units represented as integer numbers, the atomic mass on the periodic table is represented as a decimal number since it is an average of the different isotopes of the element. The atomic weight/ mass is important in chemistry because it is useful in determining the average number of neutrons in an element. Subtracting the atomic number (number of protons) from the atomic weight gives the average number of neutrons (Eric, 2007). This implies that:
Atomic weight/ mass = atomic number (number of protons) + number of neutrons.
However, there is an exclusion to the above formula for elements 93-118 of the periodic table. The atomic weight of elements that occur naturally is derived by averaging the weights of the natural abundances of the variants (isotopes) of that element (Sharp, 2016). Though, there is no ‘natural’ abundance for trans-uranium elements that are man-made. Thus, this is resolved by listing the atomic weight of the isotope that is regarded to be the longest-lived in the periodic table. Nonetheless, the atomic weights of these elements should be regarded as conditional, putting in mind that a new isotope with a longer half-life could be discovered in future (Sharp, 2016).
Chemical behavior in the periodic table
A critical look at the periodic table reveals certain general features of chemical behavior among the elements. For example, when moving down a group, it is apparent that the metallic character of an element increases due to the increased size of the atom. Also, when moving across a period, there is a change from electropositive to electronegative due to the increasing number of electrons in the outer shell of the element. Based on this chemical behavior of elements, it is possible to distinguish metallic elements from nonmetallic elements. In most cases, the metallic elements tend to be on the left side and towards the bottom side of the periodic table. On the other hand, nonmetallic elements tend to be located towards the top right side of the periodic table (Gernot & Sason, 2014).
Apart from the changes mentioned above, significant differences can also be observed between the elements categorized in the second short period and the other elements. The second short period starts from lithium and stops at fluorine. The observed difference among these elements results from the fact that their atoms are smaller and their valence electrons are safeguarded by a small 1s2 inner shell. Elements in the other atoms have their inner s- and p-electrons safeguarding the outer electrons from the nucleus (Gernot & Sason, 2014).
Important facts about the periodic table
Some of the interesting facts about the periodic table include:
- The periodic table consists of nearly 90 elements that occur in nature. All the other elements are merely man-made (Richard, 1986).
- The first element on the periodic table to be made artificially was Technetium, (Tc), with atomic number 43, and atomic weight of 98.907 (Bandoli, et al., 2001).
- The institution responsible for revising the periodic table whenever new data is available is the International Union of Pure Applied Chemistry, abbreviated as IUPAC. Currently, the IUPAC is in the process of conducting a five-month public review to name elements 113, 115, 117, and 118 as Nihonium (Nh), Moscovium (Mc), Tennessine (Ts), and Oganesson (Og) respectively. The current names of these elements on the periodic table are Ununtrium (Uut), Ununpentium (Uup), Ununseptium (Uus), and Ununoctium (Uuo). The five-month review process to name the four new elements will expire on 8th November, 2016 before the UIPAC Council formally approves the new names (IUPAC, 2016).
- The current modern periodic table accommodates 118 elements. However, scientists are working towards creating and verifying element 120 which is likely to alter the general appearance of the periodic table (Eric, 2007).
- Elements on the modern periodic table are discovered randomly, and not in order of their atomic number.
New elements in the modern periodic table
- As mentioned in the previous section, the IUPAC has named new elements on the modern periodic table including Nihonium, Moscovium, Tennessine, and Oganesson. Nihonium was revealed by discoverers at the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science in Japan (IUPAC, 2016). The discoverers derived the name ‘Nihonium’ from the word ‘Nihon’, meaning one of the two ways of saying ‘Japan’ in Japanese. However, the word ‘Nihon’ literally means ‘the Land of Rising Sun’. The discoverers proposed this name to element 113 to create a direct connection to the country where the element was first discovered. Nihonium is also considered to be the first element to be discovered in an Asian country (Fleur, 2016).
- Element 115 (Moscovium) and element 117 (Tennessine) were proposed together by the pioneers at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA), Dubna (Russia), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), and the Vanderbilt University (USA) (IUPAC, 2016). Moscovium has been proposed as the name for element 115 in recognition of the Moscow region and the Russian land where the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research belongs. The discovery experiments for this element were also conducted in this region using the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator. Element 117 has been named Tennessine in recognition of the contribution made by the Tennessee region in the discovery of the element (Fleur, 2016).
- The name of element 118 has been proposed as Oganesson, and was discovered after a collaboration of teams of discoverers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), Dubna (Russia), and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The proposed name of element 118 related to the tradition of honoring Professor Yuri Oganessian, a renowned scientist. Professor Oganessian is known for his initial contributions to transactinoid elements research (IUPAC, 2016).
- The proposed names of the four new elements meet the traditional criteria of naming elements based on specific places and names such as country, city, state, or scientist. These names are also compliant with the relevant IUPAC rules and will be published in the IUPAC journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry after the lapse of the public review period (Mint, 2016).
Is the modern periodic table significant?
The periodic table is significant due to some reasons. According to a grade 5 guide published by Spectrum (2008), the modern periodic table is a special arrangement of elements that:
- Can be used to forecast the properties of both discovered and undiscovered elements.
- Can reveal the elements that share similar characteristics based on the groups and periods.
- Can make the trends in the properties of elements apparent.
- Can provide critical information that can be used by chemists to balance chemical equations.
Is the atomic table different from the modern periodic table?
Though atomic table and ptable looks similar, there are couple of differences amongst them.In a periodic table, the elements are arranged according to their atomic number, whereas in an atomic table, the elements are arranged in increasing order of atomic mass.